This is a list of Soul Reapers (死神, Shinigami, literally, "death gods") featured in the manga and anime series Bleach, created by Tite Kubo. Soul Reapers are a fictional race of spirits who govern the flow of souls between the human world and the afterlife realm called the Soul Society.
John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948) is an American diplomat and attorney, who is currently the National Security Advisor-designate of the United States. He is expected to begin his tenure as National Security Advisor on April 9, 2018.
Karen McDougal (born March 23, 1971) is an American model and actress. She is known for her appearances in Playboy magazine as Playmate of the Month for December 1997 and Playmate of the Year of 1998. In 2001, the readers of Playboy voted McDougal the runner-up of "The sexiest Playmate of the 1990s".
Fred McFeely Rogers (March 20, 1928 – February 27, 2003) was an American television show host and Presbyterian minister. Rogers was famous for creating and hosting the educational preschool television series Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (1968–2001), which featured his kind-hearted grandfatherly personality, and direct connection to his audiences.
Solo garlic, also known as single clove garlic, monobulb garlic, single bulb garlic, or pearl garlic, is a type of Allium sativum (garlic). The size of the single clove differs from approximately 25 to 50 mm in diameter. It has the flavour of the garlic clove but is somewhat milder and slightly perfumed.
Damon Albarn (; born 23 March 1968) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, composer and record producer. He is the lead singer of the British rock band Blur and co-founder, vocalist, instrumentalist, and principal songwriter of the virtual band Gorillaz.
Pacific Rim Uprising is a 2018 American science fiction film directed by Steven S. DeKnight (in his feature-film directorial debut) and written by DeKnight, Emily Carmichael, Kira Snyder, and T.S. Nowlin. It is the sequel to the 2013 film Pacific Rim, with Guillermo del Toro, director of the original, serving as a producer here.
The White Rose (German: die Weiße Rose) was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany led by a group of students and a professor at the University of Munich. The group conducted an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign that called for active opposition to the Nazi regime.
This is a chronology of deaths in 2018. Names are reported under the date of death. Names under each date are listed in alphabetical order by surname or pseudonym.
Zlatan Ibrahimović (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈslaːtan ɪbraˈhiːmɔvɪtɕ], Bosnian: [zlǎtan ibraxǐːmoʋitɕ]; born 3 October 1981) is a Swedish professional footballer who plays as a forward for LA Galaxy. He was also a member of the Sweden national team from 2001 to 2016, serving as captain from 2010 until his retirement.
xXx (pronounced as Triple X) is an American action film franchise created by Rich Wilkes. The franchise stars Vin Diesel and Ice Cube and consists of three films: xXx (2002), xXx: State of the Union (2005) and xXx: Return of Xander Cage (2017), and a short film: The Final Chapter: The Death of Xander Cage. The series has grossed $656 million worldwide.
Darth Vader, also known by his birth name Anakin Skywalker, is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. Vader appears in the original span of the saga going from being Anakin Skywalker, the prophesied child who would bring balance to the Force, to his corruption and transformation into Darth Vader, to being the pivotal antagonist, and eventual redemption and fulfillment of the prophecy.
Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author, and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.
Deadpool 2 is an upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character Deadpool, distributed by 20th Century Fox. It is intended to be the eleventh installment in the X-Men film series, and a sequel to the 2016 film Deadpool.
Black Panther is a 2018 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. Produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures, it is the eighteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU).
Charles Hardin Holley (September 7, 1936 – February 3, 1959), known as Buddy Holly, was an American musician and singer-songwriter who was a central figure of mid-1950s rock and roll. He was born in Lubbock, Texas, to a musical family during the Great Depression, and learned to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings.
Andrew Phillip Cunanan (August 31, 1969 – July 23, 1997) was an American serial killer who murdered at least five people, including fashion designer Gianni Versace and Chicago tycoon Lee Miglin, during a three-month period in mid-1997. On June 12, 1997, Cunanan became the 449th fugitive to be listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list.
Bhagat Singh (Punjabi pronunciation: [pə̀ɡət̪ sɪ́ŋɡ] ( listen) 1907 – 23 March 1931) was an Indian socialist revolutionary whose two acts of dramatic violence against the British in India and execution at age 23 made him a folk hero of the Indian independence movement.
The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) films are an American series of superhero films, based on characters that appear in publications by Marvel Comics. The films have been in production since 2007, and in that time Marvel Studios has produced 18 films, with 14 more in various stages of production. The series collectively has grossed over $14.
Rajneesh (born Chandra Mohan Jain, 11 December 1931 – 19 January 1990), also known as Osho, Acharya Rajneesh, or simply Rajneesh, Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh or simply Bhagwan, considered as a Godman and leader of the Rajneesh movement. During his lifetime he was viewed as a controversial mystic, guru, and spiritual teacher.
Avengers: Infinity War is an upcoming American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics superhero team the Avengers, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures. It is intended to be the sequel to 2012's Marvel's The Avengers and 2015's Avengers: Age of Ultron and the nineteenth film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU).
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Trump was born and raised in the New York City borough of Queens, and earned an economics degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Usain St Leo Bolt (; born 21 August 1986) is a retired Jamaican sprinter. He is the first person to hold both the 100 metres and 200 metres world records since fully automatic time became mandatory. He also holds the world record as a part of the 4 × 100 metres relay.
Herbert Raymond McMaster (born July 24, 1962) is a United States Army officer. In 2017, he became the 26th National Security Advisor, serving under President Donald Trump. He is also known for his roles in the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation Iraqi Freedom.
X-Force is a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, most commonly in association with the X-Men. Conceived by writer/illustrator Rob Liefeld, the team first appeared in New Mutants #100 (April 1991) and soon afterwards was featured in its own series called X-Force. The group was originally a revamped version of the 1980s team, the New Mutants.
Pacific Rim is a 2013 American science fiction action film directed by Guillermo del Toro and starring Charlie Hunnam, Idris Elba, Rinko Kikuchi, Charlie Day, Burn Gorman, Robert Kazinsky, Max Martini, and Ron Perlman. The screenplay was written by Travis Beacham and del Toro from a story by Beacham.
Toys "R" Us is an American toy and juvenile-products retailer founded in 1948. Its headquarters was Wayne, New Jersey, in the New York City metropolitan area. Founded by Charles Lazarus in its modern incarnation in 1957, Toys "R" Us traces its origins to Lazarus's children's furniture store, which he started in 1948.
The tenth season of RuPaul's Drag Race began airing on March 22, 2018, on VH1. The premiere was broadcast one week after the finale of the third season of RuPaul's Drag Race: All Stars, and episodes are be followed by RuPaul's Drag Race: Untucked.
A Way Out is an action-adventure game being developed by Hazelight Studios and published by Electronic Arts under their EA Originals program. It is the second video game to be directed by Josef Fares after Brothers: A Tale of Two Sons. Announced at E3 2017, the game will only be able to be played in either online or local split screen co-op between two players, with no single player mode.
Daniel Hernandez (born May 8, 1996), known by his stage name 6ix9ine ("six-nine"), also known as Tekashi69 or simply Tekashi, is an American rapper.
Fortnite is a co-op sandbox survival game developed by Epic Games and People Can Fly and published by Epic Games. The game was released as a paid-for early access title for Microsoft Windows, macOS, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One on July 25, 2017, with a full free-to-play release expected in 2018.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup will be the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA. It is scheduled to take place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018, after the country was awarded the hosting rights on 2 December 2010.
Loyola University Chicago (often referred to as Loyola or LUC) is a private American Catholic research university located in Chicago, Illinois. Founded in 1870 by the Jesuits, today Loyola is one of the largest Catholic universities in the nation and a major contributor to Chicago's economic and cultural capital.
For the member of the Exemplars, see Bedlam (Exemplar). Bedlam (Jesse Aaronson) is a fictional character, a mutant superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. He originally possessed the mutant ability to create and project a bio-EM field.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, and current laws have provision for 245 members.
Harry Wayne Huizenga (, born December 29, 1937 – March 22, 2018) was an American businessman and entrepreneur. He was the owner of Blockbuster Video, AutoNation, Waste Management, Inc., the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League, and the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball.
Elon Reeve Musk (; born June 28, 1971) is a South African-born Canadian American business magnate, investor, and engineer. He is the founder, CEO, and lead designer of SpaceX; co-founder, CEO, and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; and co-founder and CEO of Neuralink. In December 2016, he was ranked 21st on the Forbes list of The World's Most Powerful People.
Cambridge Analytica (CA) is a British political consulting firm which combines data mining, data brokerage, and data analysis with strategic communication for the electoral process. It was started in 2013 as an offshoot of the SCL Group. The company is partly owned by the family of Robert Mercer, an American hedge-fund manager who supports many politically conservative causes.
Santa Clarita Diet is an American horror-comedy web television series created by Victor Fresco for the streaming service Netflix, starring Drew Barrymore and Timothy Olyphant. Fresco serves as the showrunner, and is an executive producer alongside Barrymore, Olyphant, Aaron Kaplan, Tracy Katsky, Chris Miller, Ember Truesdell, and Ruben Fleischer.
Unsane is a 2018 American psychological horror-thriller film directed by Steven Soderbergh and written by Jonathan Bernstein and James Greer. The film stars Claire Foy, Joshua Leonard, Jay Pharoah, Juno Temple, Aimee Mullins and Amy Irving, and follows a young businesswoman who ends up in a mental institution after she is stalked by a former hospice patient's son.
Katsuko Saruhashi (猿橋 勝子, Saruhashi Katsuko, March 22, 1920 – September 29, 2007) was a Japanese geochemist who created tools that let her take some of the first measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in seawater. She later showed evidence in seawater and the atmosphere of the dangers of radioactive fallout and how far it can travel.
This is a list of Bollywood films that are scheduled to be released in 2018.
Exo (Korean: 엑소; stylized as EXO) is a South Korean-Chinese boy group based in Seoul. Formed by S.M. Entertainment in 2011, the group debuted in 2012 and has nine members: Suho, Baekhyun, Chanyeol, D.O., Kai, Sehun, Xiumin, Lay and Chen.
Raid is a 2018 Indian period crime thriller film written by Ritesh Shah and directed by Raj Kumar Gupta. It features Ajay Devgn, Ileana D'Cruz and Saurabh Shukla. The film is inspired by the real life I-T raids that were conducted by the officers of the Indian Revenue Service in the 1980s.
WrestleMania 34 will be the thirty-fourth annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event and WWE Network event produced by WWE for their Raw and SmackDown brands. It will take place on April 8, 2018, at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California. Its website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.
Bruce Brett Weber (born October 19, 1956) is an American college basketball coach who is currently the men's basketball head coach at Kansas State University. Weber was formerly head coach at Southern Illinois University and the University of Illinois. Weber has won conference championships and conference coach of the year awards at each of the three schools where he has served as head coach.
Not to be confused with Independence Day (Pakistan). Pakistan Day (Urdu: یوم پاکستان, lit.
Rachel Meghan Markle (born August 4, 1981) is an American actress and humanitarian. She is set to become a member of the British royal family upon marriage to Prince Harry on May 19, 2018. Markle was born and raised in Los Angeles, California.
Byron Allen is an American comedian, television producer, and the founder, owner, chairman, and chief executive officer of the U.S. television production company Entertainment Studios.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3. 8 million square miles (9.
Barbara Kay Olson (née Bracher; December 27, 1955 – September 11, 2001) was an American lawyer and conservative television commentator who worked for CNN, Fox News Channel, and several other outlets. She was a passenger on American Airlines Flight 77 en route to a taping of Bill Maher's television show Politically Incorrect when it was flown into the Pentagon in the September 11 attacks.
This is a list of stand-up comedians from the United States.
xXx (pronounced as Triple X) is a 2002 American spy thriller action film directed by Rob Cohen, produced by Neal H. Moritz and written by Rich Wilkes. The first installment in the xXx franchise, the film stars Vin Diesel as Xander Cage, a thrill-seeking extreme sports enthusiast, stuntman and rebellious athlete-turned reluctant spy for the National Security Agency.
The following is a list of notable stand-up comedians by nationality.
This is a list of notable stand-up comedians from Australia.
This is a list of notable stand-up comedians from Canada.
Giovanni Maria Versace (Italian pronunciation: [ˈdʒanni verˈsaːtʃe]; 2 December 1946 – 15 July 1997) was an Italian fashion designer and founder of Versace, an international fashion house that produces accessories, fragrances, make-up, home furnishings, and clothes. He also designed costumes for theatre and films.
March 23 is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 283 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Monday, Wednesday or Friday (58 in 400 years each) than on Saturday or Sunday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Tuesday or Thursday (56).
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work by English and American political activist Thomas Paine, arguing for the philosophical position of Deism. It follows in the tradition of eighteenth-century British deism, and challenges institutionalized religion and the legitimacy of the Bible. It was published in three parts in 1794, 1795, and 1807.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York, later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, and she was educated privately at home.
Ekaterina Gabrielis asuli Jughashvili (née Geladze) (5 February 1858 - 4 June 1937) was the mother of Joseph Stalin. Those close to her called her "Keke". Her husband and Stalin's father was Besarion Jughashvili.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (; Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Пу́тин, IPA: [vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ˈputʲɪn] ( listen); born 7 October 1952) is a Russian politician serving as the current President of the Russian Federation since 7 May 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
The 2019 Cricket World Cup (officially ICC Cricket World Cup 2019) is the 12th edition of the Cricket World Cup, scheduled to be hosted by England and Wales, from 30 May to 14 July 2019. The hosting rights were awarded in April 2006, after England and Wales withdrew from the bidding to host the 2015 ICC Cricket World Cup, which was held in Australia and New Zealand.
The Greatest Showman is a 2017 American musical drama film directed by Michael Gracey in his directorial debut, written by Jenny Bicks and Bill Condon and starring Hugh Jackman, Zac Efron, Michelle Williams, Rebecca Ferguson, and Zendaya. The film is inspired by the story of P. T. Barnum's creation of the Barnum & Bailey Circus and the lives of its star attractions.
Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro GOIH, ComM (European Portuguese: [kɾiʃˈtjɐnu ʁoˈnaɫdu]; born 5 February 1985) is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club Real Madrid and the Portugal national team.
On January 8, 1992, about 8:20 p. m JST, while attending a banquet hosted by the then Prime Minister of Japan, Kiichi Miyazawa, U.S. President George H. W. Bush fainted after vomiting in Miyazawa's lap.
Stephanie Gregory Clifford (born March 17, 1979), professionally known as Stormy Daniels, Stormy Waters, or simply Stormy, is an American pornographic actress, stripper, screenwriter, and director. She is a member of the NightMoves, AVN and XRCO Halls of Fame. In 2009, a recruitment effort led her to consider challenging incumbent David Vitter for the 2010 Senate election in her native Louisiana.
The 2018 World Figure Skating Championships will be held in Milan, Italy from 19–25 March 2018, at the Mediolanum Forum.
The Loyola Ramblers men's basketball team represents Loyola University Chicago in Chicago, Illinois. The Ramblers joined the Missouri Valley Conference on July 1, 2013, ending a 34-season tenure as charter members of the Horizon League.
Isle of Dogs is a 2018 American stop-motion animated film written and directed by Wes Anderson, produced by Indian Paintbrush and Anderson's American Empirical Pictures. It features an ensemble voice cast, including Bryan Cranston, Edward Norton, Bill Murray, Jeff Goldblum, and Bob Balaban. It was the opening film of the 68th Berlin International Film Festival.
The 2018 ICC Cricket World Cup Qualifier is a current cricket tournament that is taking place during March 2018 in Zimbabwe. It decided the final qualification for the 2019 World Cup, to be played in England and Wales.
Melania Trump (; born Melanija Knavs; [mɛˈlaːnija ˈknaːu̯s], Germanized to Melania Knauss; born April 26, 1970) is the current First Lady of the United States and wife of the 45th U.S. President Donald Trump. Melania Trump was born in Novo Mesto, Slovenia and grew up in Sevnica, in the Lower Sava Valley.
Station 19 is an American action-drama television series created by Stacy McKee for ABC. McKee, Shonda Rhimes, Betsy Beers, and Paris Barclay serve as executive producers on the series, which is the second spin-off to Grey's Anatomy. Set in Seattle, the series focuses on the lives of the men and women at Seattle Fire Station 19.
The 2018 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament involves 68 teams playing in a single-elimination tournament to determine the men's National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I college basketball national champion for the 2017–18 season.
Films generate income from several revenue streams, including theatrical exhibition, home video, television broadcast rights and merchandising.
Millennials (also known as Generation Y) are the generational demographic cohort following Generation X. There are no precise dates for when this cohort starts or ends; demographers and researchers typically use the early 1980s as starting birth years and the mid-1990s to early 2000s as ending birth years.
The Assassination of Gianni Versace: American Crime Story is the second season of the FX true crime anthology television series American Crime Story. The season premiered on January 17, 2018, and concluded on March 21, 2018.
Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle is a 2017 American adventure comedy film directed by Jake Kasdan and written by Chris McKenna, Erik Sommers, Scott Rosenberg, and Jeff Pinkner, from a story by McKenna. It is a part of the Jumanji franchise, serving as a sequel to Jumanji (1995), which is based on the 1981 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg.
A Quiet Place is a 2018 American horror film directed by John Krasinski, who also stars in the film with his real-life wife Emily Blunt. The screenplay was written by Krasinski, Bryan Woods, and Scott Beck based on a story by Woods and Beck. The plot follows a family of four who must live life in silence while hiding from creatures that hunt by sound.
Krypton is an American television series developed by David S. Goyer and Damian Kindler for Syfy. The series takes place on the titular planet, approximately 200 years before the birth of Kal-El / Superman and eventual destruction of the planet, focusing on his grandfather, Seg-El (Cameron Cuffe). Krypton premiered on March 21, 2018, and will consist of ten episodes.
There are numerous films set to be released in 2018. While some films have announced release dates but have yet to begin filming, others are in production but do not yet have definite release dates.
John Felix Anthony Cena (; born April 23, 1977) is an American professional wrestler and actor. He is currently signed to WWE, where he is a free agent who appears for both the Raw and SmackDown brands. Cena started his professional wrestling career in 1999 with Ultimate Pro Wrestling (UPW) and won the UPW Heavyweight Championship the following year.
Love, Simon is a 2018 American romantic comedy-drama film directed by Greg Berlanti, written by Isaac Aptaker and Elizabeth Berger, and based on the novel Simon vs. the Homo Sapiens Agenda by Becky Albertalli. The film stars Nick Robinson, Josh Duhamel, and Jennifer Garner.
Ready Player One is a 2018 American science fiction action adventure film produced and directed by Steven Spielberg and written by Zak Penn and Ernest Cline, based on Cline's 2011 novel of the same name. The film stars Tye Sheridan, Olivia Cooke, Ben Mendelsohn, T.J. Miller, Simon Pegg, and Mark Rylance.
The Shape of Water is a 2017 American fantasy drama film directed by Guillermo del Toro and written by del Toro and Vanessa Taylor. It stars Sally Hawkins, Michael Shannon, Richard Jenkins, Doug Jones, Michael Stuhlbarg, and Octavia Spencer.
Mark Elliot Zuckerberg (; born May 14, 1984) is an American computer programmer and Internet entrepreneur. He is a co-founder of Facebook, and is currently its chairman and chief executive officer. His net worth is estimated to be US $72. 5 billion as of March 5, 2018.
Tomb Raider is a 2018 action-adventure film directed by Roar Uthaug with a screenplay by Geneva Robertson-Dworet and Alastair Siddons, from a story by Evan Daugherty and Robertson-Dworet. It is based on the 2013 video game of the same name, with some elements of its sequel by Crystal Dynamics, and is a reboot of the Tomb Raider film series.
Roxanne Shante (born Lolita Shanté Gooden; November 9, 1969) is an American hip hop musician and rapper. Born and raised in the Queensbridge Projects of Queens, New York City, Shante first gained attention through the Roxanne Wars and was part of the Juice Crew. The 2017 film Roxanne Roxanne is a dramatization of Shante's life.
Rajneeshpuram was an intentional community in Wasco County, Oregon, briefly incorporated as a city in the 1980s, which was populated with followers of the spiritual teacher Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh, later known as Osho.
BTS, also known as the Bangtan Boys, is a seven-member South Korean boy band formed by Big Hit Entertainment. They debuted on June 12, 2013 with the song "No More Dream" from their first album 2 Cool 4 Skool. They won several New Artist of the Year awards for the track, including at the 2013 Melon Music Awards and Golden Disc Awards and the 2014 Seoul Music Awards.
Riverdale is an American teen drama television series based on the characters of Archie Comics. The series was adapted for The CW by Archie Comics' chief creative officer Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa, and is produced by Warner Bros. Television and CBS Television Studios, in association with Berlanti Productions and Archie Comics.
Cable (Nathan Summers) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, commonly in association with X-Force and the X-Men. The character first appeared as a newborn infant in Uncanny X-Men #201 (Jan.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
The Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) is an American media franchise and shared universe that is centered on a series of superhero films, independently produced by Marvel Studios and based on characters that appear in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The franchise has expanded to include comic books, short films, television series, and digital series.
Bozo the Clown is a clown character whose broad popularity peaked in the United States in the 1960s as a result of widespread franchising in early television.
The Great Pacific garbage patch, also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the central North Pacific Ocean discovered between 1985 and 1988. It is located roughly between 135°W to 155°W and 35°N to 42°N. The patch extends over an indeterminate area of widely varying range depending on the degree of plastic concentration used to define the affected area.