The 2020 United States presidential election is being held on Tuesday, November 3, 2020. It is the 59th quadrennial presidential election. Voters select presidential electors who in turn will vote on December 14, 2020, to either elect a new president and vice president or reelect the incumbents Donald Trump and Mike Pence respectively.
The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican ticket of businessman Donald Trump and Indiana governor Mike Pence defeated the Democratic ticket of former secretary of state Hillary Clinton and U.S. senator from Virginia Tim Kaine.
In the United States, the Electoral College refers to the group of presidential electors required by the United States Constitution to form every four years for the sole purpose of electing the president and vice president of the United States.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( BY-dən; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as United States Senator for Delaware from 1973 to 2009.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Born and raised in Queens, New York City, Trump attended Fordham University for two years and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania.
Kamala Devi Harris ( KAH-mə-lə, born October 20, 1964) is an American politician and attorney who has served as the junior United States senator from California since 2017. She is the Democratic vice presidential nominee for the 2020 election. Born in Oakland, California, Harris graduated from Howard University and the University of California, Hastings College of the Law.
The Queen's Gambit is an American drama television miniseries based on Walter Tevis's 1983 novel of the same name. It was created by Scott Frank and Allan Scott and released on Netflix on October 23, 2020.
The historical trends in voter turnout in the United States presidential elections have been determined by the gradual expansion of voting rights from the initial restriction to white male property owners aged 21 or older in the early years of the country's independence, to all citizens aged eighteen or older in the mid-20th century.
Sir Thomas Sean Connery (25 August 1930 – 31 October 2020) was a Scottish actor. He gained recognition as the first actor to portray fictional British secret agent James Bond in film, starring in seven Bond films between 1962 and 1983.
The 2012 United States presidential election was the 57th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 2012. The incumbent Democratic President Barack Obama, and his running mate, Vice President Joe Biden, were re-elected to a second term.
Joseph Robinette "Beau" Biden III (February 3, 1969 – May 30, 2015) was an American politician, lawyer, and officer in the Army Judge Advocate General's Corps from Wilmington, Delaware. He was the eldest of three children from the marriage of former U.S. Vice President and 2020 Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden and his first wife, Neilia Hunter.
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior U.S. Senator from Illinois, and Joe Biden, the senior U.S. Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, and Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska.
John Gibb Marshall (11 January 1953 – 2 November 2020), better known by the stage name John Sessions, was a British actor and comedian. He was known for comedy improvisation in television shows such as Whose Line Is It Anyway? , as a panellist on QI, and as a character actor in numerous films, both in the UK and Hollywood.
Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates. Since then, the use of the term has been expanded to differentiate between states being perceived as liberal and those perceived as conservative.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilation of texts of a variety of forms that are all linked by the belief that they are collectively revelations of God.
Dixville Notch is an unincorporated community in Dixville township, Coos County, New Hampshire, United States. The population of the township, all of whom live in Dixville Notch, was 12 at the 2010 census. The village is known for being one of the first places to declare its results during United States presidential elections and the New Hampshire primary.
The 2000 United States presidential election was the 54th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 2000. Republican candidate George W. Bush, the governor of Texas and eldest son of the 41st president, George H. W. Bush, won the election, defeating Democratic nominee Al Gore, the incumbent vice president.
The president of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a 4-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president.
Anya Josephine Marie Taylor-Joy (born 16 April 1996) is an American-Argentine-British actress. She first became known for making appearances on the fantasy series Atlantis (2015), and had her breakthrough with the period horror film The Witch (2015), for which she earned several accolades.
The 2004 United States presidential election was the 55th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
Jo Jorgensen (born Joanne Marie Jorgensen; May 1, 1957) is an American academic and libertarian political activist. Jorgensen is the Libertarian Party's nominee for president of the United States in the 2020 election. She was previously the party's nominee for vice president in the 1996 U.S. presidential election as the running mate of author Harry Browne.
Barack Hussein Obama II ( (listen) bə-RAHK hoo-SAYN oh-BAH-mə; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Obama was the first African-American president of the United States.
The following deaths of notable individuals occurred in 2020. Names are reported under the date of death, in alphabetical order by surname or pseudonym. A typical entry reports information in the following sequence: Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent nationality (if applicable), what subject was noted for, cause of death (if known), and reference.
Gazzy Garcia (born August 17, 2000), known professionally as Lil Pump, is an American rapper, singer, and songwriter. He is one of the most prominent members of the SoundCloud rap scene. Garcia is known for his minimalist music and hyperactive public persona, where he is often portrayed taking drugs such as marijuana, lean, and xanax, actions which have garnered much criticism.
The election of the president and the vice president of the United States is an indirect election in which citizens of the United States who are registered to vote in one of the fifty U.S. states or in Washington, D.C., cast ballots not directly for those offices, but instead for members of the Electoral College.
Season twenty-nine of Dancing with the Stars premiered on September 14, 2020 on the ABC network.
Robert Hunter Biden (born February 4, 1970) is an American lawyer and investment advisor who is the second son of former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden. He is a founding partner of investment and advisory firm Rosemont Seneca Partners. In 2014, Biden was recruited to the board of Burisma Holdings, one of the largest natural gas producers in Ukraine and served until his term expired in April 2019.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main, historic rival, the Democratic Party. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of slavery into the western territories.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.
Diogo José Teixeira da Silva (born 4 December 1996), known as Diogo Jota, is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays as a forward for Premier League club Liverpool and the Portugal national team. He started playing with Paços de Ferreira, before signing for La Liga club Atlético Madrid in 2016, after two seasons in the Primeira Liga.
The 1992 United States presidential election was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. Democratic Governor Bill Clinton of Arkansas defeated incumbent Republican President George H. W. Bush, independent businessman Ross Perot of Texas, and a number of minor candidates.
The 1984 United States presidential election was the 50th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1984. Incumbent Republican President Ronald Reagan defeated former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate.
The 1996 United States presidential election was the 53rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1996. Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeated former Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole, the Republican nominee, and Ross Perot, the Reform Party nominee. Clinton and Vice President Al Gore were re-nominated without incident by the Democratic Party.
Harshad Shantilal Mehta was an Indian stockbroker, well known for his wealth and for having been charged with numerous financial crimes that took place during prime ministership of P.V. Narsimha Rao - 1992 securities scam. Of the 27 criminal charges brought against him, he was only convicted of four, before his death (by sudden heart attack) at age 47 in 2001.
Jill Tracy Jacobs Biden (née Jacobs, formerly Stevenson; born June 3, 1951) is an American educator who was second lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to Joe Biden, the 47th vice president of the United States and the Democratic Party's nominee for president of the United States in the 2020 election. Born in Hammonton, New Jersey, she grew up in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania.
No Nut November is an internet challenge revolving around abstinence, in which participants abstain from masturbating or having an orgasm during the month of November. Although No Nut November was originally intended to be satirical, some participants claim that abstaining from ejaculating and watching pornography has health benefits.
Neilia Hunter Biden (July 28, 1942 – December 18, 1972) was an American educator and the first wife of former Vice President Joe Biden. She died in a car crash in 1972 with her infant daughter, Naomi; her two sons, Beau and Hunter, were severely injured but survived.
In the United States, Election Day is the annual day set by law for the general elections of federal public officials. It is statutorily set by the Federal Government as "the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November" equaling the Tuesday occurring within November 2 to November 8.
In American politics, the term swing state (or battleground state) refers to any state that could reasonably be won by either the Democratic or Republican presidential candidate by a swing in votes. These states are usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections.
The 1988 United States presidential election was the 51st quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1988. Incumbent Republican Vice President George H. W. Bush defeated Democratic Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis. This was the first presidential election since 1940 in which a party won the presidency three consecutive times; as of 2020, it has not happened since.
The North Ronaldsay or Orkney is a breed of sheep from North Ronaldsay, the northernmost island of Orkney, off the north coast of Scotland. It belongs to the Northern European short-tailed sheep group of breeds, and has evolved without much cross-breeding with modern breeds. It is a smaller sheep than most, with the rams (males) horned and ewes (females) mostly hornless.
The Mandalorian is an American space Western streaming television series created by Jon Favreau for Disney+. It premiered with the service's launch in November 2019, and is the first live-action series in the Star Wars franchise.
Edward Joseph Snowden (born June 21, 1983) is an American whistleblower who copied and leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013 when he was a Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee and subcontractor.
Melania Trump (; born Melanija Knavs; [mɛˈlaːnija ˈknaːu̯s], Germanized as Melania Knauss; April 26, 1970) is a Slovene-American former model and businesswoman. She is the current First Lady of the United States, as the wife of the 45th U.S. president Donald Trump. Trump was born in Novo Mesto and grew up in Sevnica, in the Yugoslav republic of Slovenia.
Sacha Noam Baron Cohen (born 13 October 1971) is an English actor, comedian, writer, and producer. He is known for his creation and portrayal of fictional satirical characters, including Ali G, Borat Sagdiyev, Brüno Gehard and Admiral General Aladeen. Baron Cohen adopts a variety of accents and guises for his characters.
The Undoing is an American psychological thriller miniseries. Based on the 2014 novel You Should Have Known by Jean Hanff Korelitz, the miniseries premiered on HBO on October 25, 2020. The series stars Nicole Kidman, is written and produced by David E. Kelley, and directed by Susanne Bier.
The 1980 United States presidential election was the 49th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 1980. Republican nominee Ronald Reagan defeated incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter in a landslide victory.
Ashley Blazer Biden (born June 8, 1981) is an American social worker, activist, philanthropist, and fashion designer. She served as the Executive Director of the Delaware Center for Justice from 2014 to 2019. Prior to her administrative role at the center, she worked in the Delaware Department of Services for Children, Youth, and Their Families.
This is a list of nationwide public opinion polls that have been conducted relating to the general election for the 2020 United States presidential election. The persons named in the polls are declared candidates or have received media speculation about their possible candidacy.
The 2020 United States elections are scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020. All 435 seats of the House of Representatives, 35 of the 100 seats in the Senate, and the office of president will be contested. Thirteen state and territory governorships, as well as numerous other state and local elections, will also be contested.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (US or U.S.) or America, is a country primarily located in central North America, between Canada and Mexico. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five self-governing territories, and several other island possessions. At 3. 8 million square miles (9.
Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current vice president of the United States, since 2017. He was the 50th governor of Indiana from 2013 to 2017 and served six terms in the U.S. House of Representatives from 2001 to 2013. Pence was born and raised in Columbus, Indiana, and is the younger brother of U.S. representative Greg Pence.
The Queen's Gambit is an American novel by Walter Tevis, exploring the life of a female chess prodigy. A bildungsroman, it was originally published in 1983. It covers themes of feminism, chess, drug addiction, and alcoholism.
F5, Inc. is an American company that specializes in application services and application delivery networking (ADN). F5 technologies focus on the delivery, security, performance, and availability of web applications, including the availability of computing, storage, and network resources.
Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.
Ronald Wilson Reagan ( RAY-gən; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and became a highly influential voice of modern conservatism. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975.
The 1976 United States presidential election was the 48th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976. Democrat Jimmy Carter of Georgia defeated incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford from Michigan.
"The Front" is the nineteenth episode of The Simpsons' fourth season. It originally aired in the United States on the Fox network on April 15, 1993. In the episode, Bart and Lisa decide to write an episode of The Itchy & Scratchy Show; after their script is rejected, they resubmit it under the name of their grandfather Abraham Simpson, resulting in Grampa being hired as a staff writer.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Born into the Bush family, his father, George H. W. Bush, served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon from California defeated Democratic U.S. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Florida was won by Donald Trump on November 8, 2016, with a plurality of 49. 0% of the popular vote that included a 1. 2% winning margin over Hillary Clinton, who had 47. 8% of the vote.
Mirzapur is an action crime thriller web television series on Amazon Prime Video produced by Excel Entertainment. The series is primarily shot in Mirzapur, with some shots in Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Ghazipur, Lucknow, Raebareli, Gorakhpur and Varanasi. It revolves around drugs, guns, murders and lawlessness.
John Christopher Depp II (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, producer, and musician. He is regarded as one of the most notable film stars.
George Herbert Walker Bush (June 12, 1924 – November 30, 2018) was an American politician, diplomat, and businessman who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Ryan Joseph Giggs (born Wilson; 29 November 1973) is a Welsh football coach and former player. He is the manager of the Wales national team and a co-owner of Salford City. Giggs played his entire professional career for Manchester United and briefly served as the club's interim manager after the sacking of David Moyes in April 2014.
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (Spanish: [oˈkasjo koɾˈtes]; born October 13, 1989), also known by her initials AOC, is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for New York's 14th congressional district. The district includes the eastern part of the Bronx, portions of north-central Queens, and Rikers Island in New York City. She is a member of the Democratic Party.
Kanye West announced his 2020 United States presidential election campaign through Twitter on July 4, 2020, Independence Day. On July 16, 2020, the campaign filed a Statement of Candidacy with the Federal Election Commission. He entered the election after missing at least six states' deadlines to appear on the ballot as a third-party candidate.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The power of the presidency has grown substantially since its formation, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major territories, and various minor islands.
The 2016 United States presidential election in Kentucky was held on November 8, 2016, as part of the 2016 General Election in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia participated.
The 1968 United States presidential election was the 46th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968. The Republican nominee, former vice president Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent vice president Hubert Humphrey, and the American Independent Party nominee, Governor George Wallace.
William Jefferson Clinton (né Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American lawyer and politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to his presidency, he served as governor of Arkansas (1979–1981 and 1983–1992) and as attorney general of Arkansas (1977–1979).
This is a list of presidents of the United States by time in office. The basis of the list is the difference between dates. The length of a full four-year presidential term of office amounts to 1,461 days (three common years of 365 days plus one leap year of 366 days).
YouTube is an American online video-sharing platform headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$ 1. 65 billion; YouTube now operates as one of Google's subsidiaries.
Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 – 10 or 12 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great.
The 1960 United States presidential election was the 44th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a closely contested election, Democratic United States Senator John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national bicameral legislature of the United States. The composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution.
Amber Laura Heard (born April 22, 1986) is an American actress and model. Born and raised in Texas, she made her film debut in a minor supporting role in the sports drama Friday Night Lights (2004), followed by a series of other small roles in television and film.
This is a list of incumbent presidents in any country who ran for another term in office but were not reelected.
Knock Knock is a 2015 American erotic thriller film directed by Eli Roth, who also co-wrote the script with Guillermo Amoedo and Nicolás López. The film stars Keanu Reeves, Lorenza Izzo, and Ana de Armas. The film was released on October 9, 2015, by Lionsgate Premiere.
The following is a timeline of major events leading up, during, and after the 2020 United States presidential election, the 59th quadrennial United States presidential election. President Donald Trump of the Republican Party, who was elected in 2016, is seeking reelection to a second term.
Thomas Edward Patrick Brady Jr. (born August 3, 1977) is an American football quarterback for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers of the National Football League (NFL). He spent the first 20 seasons of his career with the New England Patriots, playing in nine Super Bowls and winning six of them (XXXVI, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XLIX, LI, and LIII), both of which are the most of any player in NFL history.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the Democratic Party, he won a record four presidential elections and became a central figure in world events during the first half of the 20th century.
The 2020 Atlantic hurricane season is an ongoing tropical cyclone season which has featured tropical cyclone formation at a record-breaking rate. So far, there have been a total of 29 tropical or subtropical cyclones, 28 named storms, 12 hurricanes, and 5 major hurricanes.
Noel Fielding (; born 21 May 1973) is an English comedian, writer, actor, artist, musician, and television presenter.
The family of Joe Biden is an American family comprising several notable members.
Kirstie Louise Alley (born January 12, 1951) is an American actress, producer, model, and television personality. Her breakout role was as Rebecca Howe on the NBC sitcom Cheers (1987–1993), receiving an Emmy Award and a Golden Globe in 1991 for the role. From 1997–2000, she starred on the sitcom Veronica's Closet, earning additional Emmy and Golden Globe nominations.
The Libertarian Party (LP) is a political party in the United States that promotes civil liberties, non-interventionism, laissez-faire capitalism, and limiting the size and scope of government. The party was conceived in August 1971 at meetings in the home of David F. Nolan in Westminster, Colorado, and was officially formed on December 11, 1971 in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
The Haunting of Bly Manor is an American supernatural horror drama streaming television series, created by Mike Flanagan for Netflix, and loosely based on Henry James's work. It is the follow-up series to The Haunting of Hill House and the second entry in The Haunting anthology series.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, philanthropist, and former farmer who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as a Georgia State Senator from 1963 to 1967 and as the 76th governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975.
QAnon () is a far-right conspiracy theory alleging that a cabal of Satan-worshiping pedophiles is running a global child sex-trafficking ring and plotting against US President Donald Trump, who is battling against the cabal. The theory also commonly asserts that Trump is planning a day of reckoning known as "The Storm", when thousands of members of the cabal will be arrested.
The 1964 United States presidential election was the 45th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1964. Incumbent Democratic United States President Lyndon B. Johnson defeated Barry Goldwater, the Republican nominee.
Jason Joseph Connery (born 11 January 1963) is a British actor, voice actor and director. He is the son of Sir Sean Connery (1930–2020) and Diane Cilento (1932–2011). On screen, he is best known for appearing in the third series of the ITV drama series Robin of Sherwood in 1986.
The 2020 United States Senate elections will be held on November 3, 2020, with the 33 class 2 seats of the Senate being contested in regular elections. The winners will be elected to six-year terms extending from January 3, 2021, to January 3, 2027.
Ivana Marie "Ivanka" Trump (; born October 30, 1981) is an American businesswoman, serving since 2017 as Advisor to the President, her father Donald Trump. The daughter and second child of President Trump and his first wife, Ivana, she is the first Jewish member of a first family, having converted before marrying her husband, Jared Kushner.
Ivana Marie Trump (née Zelníčková; Czech: [ˈzɛlɲiːtʃkovaː], born February 20, 1949) is a Czech-American businesswoman, media personality, fashion designer, author, and former model. She lived in Canada in the 1970s before relocating to the United States where she married Donald Trump in 1977.
There have been five United States presidential elections in which the successful presidential candidate did not receive a plurality of the popular vote, including the 1824 election, which was the first U.S. presidential election where the popular vote was recorded.
Howard Gresham Hawkins (born December 8, 1952) is an American trade unionist and environmental activist from New York. A co-founder of the Green Party of the United States, Hawkins is the party's presidential nominee in the 2020 presidential election.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth). Her father ascended the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive.