The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—constitutes the legislature of the United States.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). First identified in Wuhan, Hubei, China, in December 2019, the outbreak was recognised as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020.
The 1918 influenza pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920; also known as the Spanish flu) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus, with the second being the swine flu in 2009. The Spanish flu infected 500 million people around the world, or about 27% of the world population of between 1. 8 and 1. 9 billion.
Coronaviruses are a group of related viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that can be mild, such as some cases of the common cold (among other possible causes, predominantly rhinoviruses), and others that can be lethal, such as SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China, and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough and shortness of breath.
The first cases of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in Italy were confirmed on 31 January 2020, when two Chinese tourists in Rome tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019, caused by SARS-CoV-2. A week later, an Italian man repatriated back to Italy from the city of Wuhan, China, was hospitalised and confirmed to be the third case of the 2019–20 coronavirus in Italy.
The first case of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in India was reported on 30 January 2020, originating from China. As of 18 March 2020, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare has confirmed a total of 137 cases and 3 deaths in the country.
Park Chan-yeol (born November 27, 1992), better known mononymously as Chanyeol, is a South Korean rapper, singer, songwriter, producer, actor and model. He is a member of the South Korean-Chinese boy group Exo, its sub-group Exo-K and sub-unit Exo-SC.
The first confirmed case in the United States of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was announced on January 21, 2020. By March 12, 2020, diagnosed cases of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in the U.S. exceeded 1,000. The number of active cases exceeded 2,000 by March 14, 3,000 cases by March 15th, and 4,000 cases by March 16th.
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig, lit. 'the Day of the Festival of Patrick'), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (c. 385 – c. 461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
Andrew Mark Cuomo ( KWOH-moh; born December 6, 1957) is an American politician, author, and lawyer serving as the 56th governor of New York since 2011. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected to the same position his late father, Mario Cuomo, held for three terms. Born in New York City, Cuomo is a graduate of Fordham University and Albany Law School of Union University, New York.
The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic that lasted from early 2009 to mid 2010, and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first being the 1918–1920 Spanish flu pandemic), albeit a new strain.
This article documents countries and territories affected by and responses to the coronavirus responsible for the 2019–20 pandemic first detected in Wuhan, Hubei, China. It may not include all the contemporary major responses and measures.
Zhong Nanshan (simplified Chinese: 钟南山; traditional Chinese: 鍾南山; pinyin: Zhōng Nánshān; born 20 October 1936) is a Chinese epidemiologist and pulmonologist who discovered the SARS coronavirus in 2003. He was president of the Chinese Medical Association from 2005 to 2009 and is currently the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Thoracic Disease.
Thomas Edward Patrick Brady Jr. (born August 3, 1977) is an American football quarterback for the New England Patriots of the National Football League (NFL). Brady has played in a record nine Super Bowls, winning six of them (XXXVI, XXXVIII, XXXIX, XLIX, LI, and LIII), the most of any player in NFL history.
Wikipedia ( (listen) wik-ih-PEE-dee-ə or (listen) wik-ee-PEE-dee-ə) is a multilingual online encyclopedia created and maintained as an open collaboration project by a community of volunteer editors using a wiki-based editing system. It is the largest and most popular general reference work on the World Wide Web, and is one of the most popular websites ranked by Alexa as of January 2020.
Contagion is a 2011 American action thriller film directed by Steven Soderbergh. Its ensemble cast includes Marion Cotillard, Matt Damon, Laurence Fishburne, Jude Law, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Kate Winslet.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public, as seen in multiple countries listed below.
Christopher Charles Cuomo ( KWOH-moh; born August 9, 1970) is an American television journalist, best known as the presenter of Cuomo Prime Time, a weeknight news analysis show on CNN. Cuomo is the brother of New York Governor Andrew Cuomo and son of the late New York Governor Mario Cuomo.
The Black Death, also known as the Pestilence, Great Bubonic Plague, the Great Plague or the Plague, or less commonly the Great Mortality or Black Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia, peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
The Eyes of Darkness is a thriller novel by American writer Dean Koontz, released in 1981. The book focuses on a mother who sets out on a quest to find out if her son truly did die one year ago, or if he is still alive. . .
Idrissa Akuna Elba (; born 6 September 1972) is an English actor, writer, producer, musician, DJ, rapper, and singer. He is known for roles including Stringer Bell in the HBO series The Wire, DCI John Luther in the BBC One series Luther, and Nelson Mandela in the biographical film Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (2013).
Peter Michael Whittingham (born 8 September 1984) is an English professional footballer. His primary position is as a central midfielder, although he can operate as a winger on both the left and right, as well as a second-striker. He was part of the Aston Villa team that won the FA Youth Cup in 2002, and a year later he made his Premier League debut.
The following deaths of notable individuals occurred in 2020. Names are reported under the date of death, in alphabetical order by surname or pseudonym. A typical entry reports information in the following sequence: Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent nationality (if applicable), what subject was noted for, cause of death (if known), and reference.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is a disease epidemic that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have been transmitted to Germany on 27 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Bavaria.
WrestleMania 36 is the upcoming 36th annual WrestleMania professional wrestling pay-per-view and WWE Network event produced by WWE for their Raw, SmackDown, and NXT brands—the first to promote the NXT brand.
Saint Patrick (Latin: Patricius; Irish: Pádraig [ˈpˠaːd̪ˠɾˠəɟ]; Welsh: Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland. Known as the "Apostle of Ireland", he is the primary patron saint of Ireland, the other patron saints being Brigit of Kildare and Columba. Patrick was never formally canonised.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafari.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Spain on 31 January 2020, when a German tourist tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in La Gomera. On 24 February, following a COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, Spain confirmed multiple cases related to the Italian clusters, originating from a medical doctor from Lombardy, Italy who was on holiday in Tenerife.
The first case of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Canada during the 2019–20 worldwide pandemic was confirmed on January 25, 2020, when a man returned to Toronto after travelling in Wuhan, China. As of March 16, 2020, there have been 587 confirmed cases of Coronavirus reported in Canada, with eight deaths and 11 recoveries.
The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak was confirmed to have spread to the United Kingdom on 31 January 2020 from China when the first two cases with the respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were confirmed in Newcastle upon Tyne in a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York.
This article is a list of deaths caused by an infectious disease. Widespread and chronic complaints such as heart disease and allergy are not included as they are not thought to be infectious.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously known by the provisional name 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus.
This article documents the impacts of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in Australia, and may not include all the contemporary major responses and measures. As of 17 March 2020, 454 cases have been reported in the country with most of the cases being in New South Wales with 209.
Mario Matthew Cuomo ( KWOH-moh, Italian: [ˈkwɔːmo]; June 15, 1932 – January 1, 2015) was an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served as the 52nd Governor of New York for three terms, from 1983 to 1994, Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1979 to 1982, and Secretary of State of New York from 1975 to 1978.
Richard Stephen Dreyfuss (; né Dreyfus; born October 29, 1947) is an American actor best known for starring in popular films between the 1970s and 1990s, including American Graffiti, Jaws, Stand by Me, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, The Goodbye Girl, Tin Men, Stakeout, Always, What About Bob? and Mr. Holland's Opus.
This article documents countries in Europe affected by COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus responsible for the 2019–20 pandemic first recorded in Wuhan, China. It may not include all the most recent responses and measures taken.
Rishi Sunak (born 12 May 1980) is a British Conservative Party politician serving as Chancellor of the Exchequer, since February 2020. He was appointed following the resignation of Sajid Javid during a cabinet reshuffle in 2020.
The 2009 flu pandemic in the United States was a novel strain of the Influenza A/H1N1 virus, commonly referred to as "swine flu", that began in the spring of 2009. The virus had spread to the US from an outbreak in Mexico.
The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses are a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the approximately 3,979 pledged delegates to the 2020 Democratic National Convention. Those delegates will, by pledged votes, elect the Democratic nominee for president of the United States in the 2020 U.S. presidential election.
Deborah Leah Birx (born April 4, 1956) is an American physician and diplomat who serves as the coronavirus (COVID-19) response coordinator for the White House Coronavirus Task Force". Birx has served as Ambassador-at-Large and United States Global AIDS Coordinator since 2014. In this role she has been responsible for PEPFAR's US$6.
Thomas Jeffrey Hanks (born July 9, 1956) is an American actor and filmmaker. Known for both his comedic and dramatic roles, Hanks is one of the most popular and recognizable film stars worldwide, and is widely regarded as an American cultural icon. Hanks' films have grossed more than $4. 9 billion in North America and more than $9.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of SARS in southern China caused an eventual 8,098 cases, resulting in 774 deaths reported in 17 countries (9. 6% fatality rate), with the majority of cases in mainland China and Hong Kong.
Anthony Stephen Fauci ( ; born December 24, 1940) is an American immunologist who, as a physician employed by the National Institutes of Health of the United States, has served public health in a variety of capacities for more than half a century.
Lyle Wesley Waggoner (; April 13, 1935 — March 17, 2020) was an American actor and former model, known for his work on The Carol Burnett Show from 1967 to 1974, and for playing the role of Steve Trevor and Steve Trevor Jr. on Wonder Woman from 1975 to 1979.
Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu. It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. For this reason, they are described as H1N1, H1N2 etc.
F5 Networks, Inc. is a transnational company that specializes in application services and application delivery networking (ADN). F5 technologies focus on the delivery, security, performance, and availability of web applications, including the availability of computing, storage, and network resources.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic spread to South Africa, with the first case confirmed on 5 March 2020 by Minister of Health Zweli Mkhize. As of 17 March 2020, there were a total of 85 confirmed cases with zero deaths.
Roger Mayweather (April 24, 1961 – March 17, 2020) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1981 to 1999, and until 2020, had worked as a boxing trainer. He was a two-weight world champion, having held the WBA and lineal super featherweight titles from 1983 to 1984, and the WBC light welterweight title from 1987 to 1989.
Julie Anne Merkell (née Harris) (born 26 May 1972), known professionally as Patsy Palmer, is an English actress and DJ, known for her roles as Natasha in the children's drama series Grange Hill (1985–1987), and Bianca Jackson in the BBC soap opera EastEnders (1993–1999, 2008–2014, 2019–), which earned her the British Soap Award for Best Actress.
Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects. Certain types of malaria, resistant strains, and complicated cases typically require different or additional medication. It is also occasionally used for amebiasis that is occurring outside the intestines, rheumatoid arthritis, and lupus erythematosus.
QAnon () is a far-right conspiracy theory detailing a supposed secret plot by an alleged "deep state" against U.S. President Donald Trump and his supporters.
On the night of 5 April 1944, Siegfried Lederer, a Czech Jew, escaped from the Auschwitz concentration camp wearing an SS uniform provided by SS-Rottenführer Viktor Pestek. Because of his Catholic faith and infatuation with Renée Neumann, a Jewish prisoner, Pestek opposed the Holocaust.
During the global coronavirus pandemic, Pakistan confirmed its first two COVID-19 cases on 26 February 2020.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to France on 24 January 2020, when the first COVID-19 case in Europe and France was confirmed in Bordeaux. It involved a 48-year-old French citizen who arrived in France from China. Two more cases were confirmed by the end of the day; all of the individuals recently returned from China.
As of March 18, 2020, there have been 187 confirmed cases of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Philippines. Out of the 187 cases, 14 deaths and 4 recoveries were recorded. The first case was confirmed on January 30, that of a 38-year-old Chinese woman who was confined in the San Lazaro Hospital in Manila.
Adrenochrome is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C9H9NO3 produced by the oxidation of adrenaline (epinephrine). The derivative carbazochrome is a hemostatic medication. Despite a similarity in chemical names, it is unrelated to chrome or chromium.
Umifenovir (trade names Arbidol Russian: Арбидол, Chinese: 阿比朵尔) is an antiviral treatment for influenza infection used in Russia and China. The drug is manufactured by Pharmstandard (Russian: Фармстандарт). Although some Russian studies have shown it to be effective, it is not approved for use in other countries.
The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster, owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world's largest of any kind. It broadcasts radio news, speech and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.
SN 1604, also known as Kepler's Supernova, Kepler's Nova or Kepler's Star, was a Type Ia supernova that occurred in the Milky Way, in the constellation Ophiuchus. Appearing in 1604, it is the most recent supernova in our galaxy to have been unquestionably observed by the naked eye, occurring no farther than 6 kiloparsecs (20,000 light-years) from Earth.
This article lists the pages containing the chronology and epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic which originated in Wuhan, China by month, and may not include all contemporary major responses and measures. Furthermore, some developments may become known or fully understood only in retrospect.
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs, rocks and safe entries to harbors; they also assist in aerial navigation.
Westworld is an American science fiction Western television series created by Jonathan Nolan and Lisa Joy. Produced by HBO, it is based on the 1973 film of the same name (written and directed by Michael Crichton) and, to a lesser extent, the film's 1976 sequel Futureworld.
In February and March 2020, during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic, Polish health authorities carried out laboratory testing of suspected cases of infection by SARS-CoV-2, one of the seven known human coronaviruses, as well as home quarantining and monitoring.
Mia Khalifa (Arabic: ميا خليفة; born February 10, 1993), also known as Mia Callista, is a Lebanese-American social media personality, sports commentator and webcam model. She was a pornographic actress from 2014 to 2015. Born in Beirut, Lebanon, Khalifa moved to the United States in 2001.
Kingdom (Korean: 킹덤; RR: Kingdeom) is a 2019 South Korean political period supernatural thriller web television series written by Kim Eun-hee and directed by Kim Seong-hun. It is Netflix's first original Korean series, which premiered on January 25, 2019. The series is adapted from the webcomic series The Kingdom of the Gods, which was authored by Kim Eun-hee and drawn by Yang Kyung-il.
Wuhan ([ù. xân] (listen); simplified Chinese: 武汉; traditional Chinese: 武漢) is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It is the largest city in Hubei and the most populous city in Central China, with a population of over 11 million, the ninth most populous Chinese city, and one of the nine National Central Cities of China.
Jerome Michael Adams is an American anesthesiologist and a vice admiral in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps who currently serves as the 20th Surgeon General of the United States. Prior to becoming Surgeon General, he served as the Indiana State Health Commissioner, from 2014–2017.
This article documents the impacts of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic in Romania, and may not include all the contemporary major responses and measures. As of 16 March, 3,282 people are in institutionalized quarantine, and 16,610 are in isolation at home and under medical supervision.
The first confirmed case of the pandemic of COVID-19 in Sweden was announced on 31 January 2020, when a woman returning from Wuhan tested positive. On 26 February, following the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy and Iran, multiple infection travel-related clusters appeared in Sweden. Since then, individuals in every county have tested positive for COVID-19.
This is a list of the largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average from 1896. Compare to the list of largest daily changes in the S&P 500 Index.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was first manifested by a cluster of mysterious, suspected pneumonia cases in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei Province, China. A Wuhan hospital notified the local center for disease control and prevention (CDC) and health commissions on 27 December 2019.
Margarita Ibrahimoff (born October 26, 1956), known professionally as Rita Wilson, is an American actress, singer, songwriter, and producer.
Black Monday on October 19, 1987 is the name commonly attached to a sudden, severe, and largely unexpected stock market crash that struck the global financial market system. In the United States, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell exactly 508 points (22. 6%), accompanied by crashes in the futures and options markets. This was the largest one-day percentage drop in Dow Jones history.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with its main rival, the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party.
Swine influenza is an infection caused by any one of several types of swine influenza viruses. Swine influenza virus (SIV) or swine-origin influenza virus (S-OIV) is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Turkey when its first case was officially confirmed on 11 March 2020 (UTC+03:00). Nevertheless, there have been reports in the media concerning a potential cover-up of the actual number of cases, with significant concerns regarding the questionable methods of testing used by the government.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974) was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, and activist. At age 25 in 1927, he went from obscurity as a U.S. Air Mail pilot to instantaneous world fame by winning the Orteig Prize for making a nonstop flight from New York to Paris.
Ebola virus disease (EVD), also known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF) or simply Ebola, is a viral haemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis. One to seven days after exposure to the bacteria, flu-like symptoms develop. These symptoms include fever, headaches, and vomiting.
The Long Island serial killer (also referred to as LISK, the Gilgo Beach Killer or the Craigslist Ripper) is an unidentified suspected serial killer who is believed to have murdered 10 to 16 people over a period of nearly 20 years, mostly women who were associated with being prostitutes, and left their bodies in areas on the South Shore of Long Island, New York.
The Invisible Man is a 2020 science fiction horror film written and directed by Leigh Whannell. A contemporary adaptation of the novel of the same name by H. G. Wells and a reboot of The Invisible Man film series of the 1930s, it follows a woman who, after the apparent suicide of her abusive and wealthy boyfriend, believes she is being stalked by him.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Trump was born and raised in Queens, a borough of New York City, and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School.
Outbreak is a 1995 American medical disaster film directed by Wolfgang Petersen and based on Richard Preston's nonfiction book The Hot Zone. It stars Dustin Hoffman, Rene Russo, Morgan Freeman and Donald Sutherland, and co-stars Cuba Gooding Jr., Kevin Spacey and Patrick Dempsey.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), Dow Jones, or simply the Dow (), is a stock market index that measures the stock performance of 30 large companies listed on stock exchanges in the United States.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3. 8 million square miles (9. 8 million km2), it is the world's third or fourth-largest country by total area.
Mari Gilbert (June 22, 1964 – July 23, 2016) was an American activist and murder victim advocate.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to Russia on 31 January 2020.
The 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic was confirmed to have spread to the Netherlands on 27 February 2020, when its first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Tilburg. It involved a 56-year-old Dutchman who had arrived in the Netherlands from Italy. There are currently 1,710 confirmed cases of infection in the Netherlands and 43 infected patients have died.
The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2020 or simply Euro 2020, is scheduled to be the 16th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA).
Matilda Cuomo (born September 16, 1931) is an American advocate for women and children, former First Lady of New York from 1983 to 1994, and matriarch of the Cuomo family. She is the widow of Governor of New York Mario Cuomo. The founder of the Child Advocacy Group Mentoring USA, Cuomo was inducted to the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2017.
Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubblika itaˈljaːna]), is a European country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and surrounded by several islands. Italy is located in south-central Europe, and it is also considered a part of western Europe.