On May 25, 2020, George Floyd, a 46-year-old black man, died in Minneapolis, Minnesota after Derek Chauvin, a white police officer, pressed his knee to Floyd's neck for almost nine minutes while Floyd was handcuffed face down in the street; two other officers further restrained Floyd and another stood by and prevented onlookers from intervening.
The antifa () movement in the United States is a left-wing, anti-fascist political activist movement that comprises autonomous activist groups that aim to achieve their political objectives through the use of direct action rather than through policy reform.
Jeffrey Edward Epstein ( EP-steen; January 20, 1953 – August 10, 2019) was an American financier and sex offender. He began his professional life as a teacher but then switched to the banking and finance sector in various roles, working at Bear Stearns before forming his own firm.
In the United States, the law for murder varies by jurisdiction.
On March 13, 2020, Breonna Taylor, a 26-year-old African American woman, was fatally shot by Louisville Metro Police Department (LMPD) officers. Sergeant Jonathan Mattingly, Detective Brett Hankison, and Detective Myles Cosgrove entered her apartment in plainclothes in Louisville, Kentucky, while serving a "no-knock warrant".
Black Lives Matter (BLM) is an international human rights movement, originating in the African-American community, that campaigns against violence and systemic racism towards black people.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews, Samaritans, and Rastafari.
The George Floyd protests are an ongoing series of protests and riots against police brutality that began as local protests in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area of Minnesota before spreading throughout the United States and then worldwide.
Ghislaine Maxwell ( ghee-LAYN, -LEN; born 25 December 1961) is a British socialite and alleged procurer who is known for her association with Jeffrey Epstein. The youngest child of disgraced publishing tycoon Robert Maxwell, she moved to the United States after her father's death in 1991 and became a close associate of the financier and subsequently convicted sex offender Jeffrey Epstein.
Francis Lazarro Rizzo, Sr. (October 23, 1920 – July 16, 1991) was an American police officer and politician. He served as Philadelphia police commissioner from 1968 to 1971 and mayor of Philadelphia from 1972 to 1980.
Steven Arnold King (born May 28, 1949) is an American politician and former businessman, serving as a U.S. Representative from Iowa since 2003. A member of the Republican Party, he represented Iowa's 5th congressional district until 2013, when redistricting renumbered it the 4th. This district is in northwestern Iowa and includes Sioux City.
The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, later shortened to Heavenly Kingdom (simplified Chinese: 天国; traditional Chinese: 天國; pinyin: Tīanguó) or Heavenly Dynasty (Chinese: 天朝), was an unrecognized oppositional state in China and Christian-Shenic theocratic absolute monarchy from 1851 to 1864, supporting the overthrow of the Qing dynasty by Hong Xiuquan and his followers.
Third-degree murder is a category of murder defined in the laws of three states in the United States: Florida, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania. It was also formerly defined in New Mexico (which once had five degrees of murder) and Wisconsin.
The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). The outbreak was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019.
George Soros, Hon (born Schwartz György; August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-American billionaire investor and philanthropist. As of February 2018, he had a net worth of $8 billion, having donated more than $32 billion to his philanthropic agency, the Open Society Foundations. Born in Budapest, Soros survived Nazi Germany-occupied Hungary and emigrated to the United Kingdom in 1947.
Rodney Glen King (April 2, 1965 – June 17, 2012) was an American construction worker turned writer and activist after surviving an act of police brutality by the Los Angeles Police Department. On March 3, 1991, King was violently beaten by LAPD officers during his arrest on I-210.
Elizabeth Anne Broderick (née Bisceglia; born November 7, 1947) is an American woman and convicted murderer who was convicted of the killing of her ex-husband, Daniel T. Broderick III, and his second wife, Linda (Kolkena) Broderick on November 5, 1989. At a second trial on December 11, 1991, she was convicted of two counts of second-degree murder and later sentenced to 32-years-to-life in prison.
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. Trump was born and raised in Queens, a borough of New York City, and received a bachelor's degree in economics from the Wharton School.
The following deaths of notable individuals occurred in 2020. Names are reported under the date of death, in alphabetical order by surname or pseudonym. A typical entry reports information in the following sequence: Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent nationality (if applicable), what subject was noted for, cause of death (if known), and reference.
Elon Reeve Musk (; born June 28, 1971) is an engineer, industrial designer, technology entrepreneur and philanthropist. He is a citizen of South Africa, Canada, and the United States.
Madeleine Beth McCann (born 12 May 2003) disappeared on the evening of 3 May 2007 from her bed in a holiday apartment at a resort in Praia da Luz, in the Algarve region of Portugal. Her whereabouts remain unknown. The Daily Telegraph described the disappearance as "the most heavily reported missing-person case in modern history".
Sandra Bland was a 28-year-old African American woman who was found hanged in a jail cell in Waller County, Texas, on July 13, 2015, three days after being arrested during a pretextual traffic stop. Her death was ruled a suicide. It was followed by protests against her arrest, disputing the cause of death, and alleging racial violence against her.
Anonymous is a decentralized international activist/hacktivist collective/movement that is widely known for its various cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions and government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
Randall L. Feenstra (born January 14, 1969) is an American politician and businessman serving as the Iowa State Senator from the 2nd district since 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he previously was Sioux County Treasurer from 2006 to 2008.
The 1992 Los Angeles riots, sometimes called the 1992 Los Angeles uprising, were a series of riots and civil disturbances that occurred in Los Angeles County in April and May 1992.
Race and ethnicity in the United States is a complex topic because the United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population. At the federal level, race and ethnicity have been categorized separately.
On July 17, 2014, Eric Garner died in the New York City borough of Staten Island after Daniel Pantaleo, a New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer, put him in a chokehold while arresting him. Video footage of the incident generated widespread national attention and raised questions about the appropriate use of force by law enforcement.
Mark Thomas Esper (born April 26, 1964) is the 27th and current United States secretary of defense, and a former U.S. Army officer and defense contractor lobbyist. He previously served as the 23rd United States secretary of the Army from 2017 to 2019.
Stephen Jesse Jackson (born April 5, 1978) is an American former professional basketball player who played 14 seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA) with the New Jersey Nets, Indiana Pacers, Golden State Warriors, Milwaukee Bucks, Charlotte Bobcats, San Antonio Spurs, and Los Angeles Clippers. Jackson won an NBA championship with the Spurs in 2003.
Lea Michele Sarfati (; born August 29, 1986), known professionally as Lea Michele, is an American actress, singer, and author. She began her career as a child actress on Broadway, appearing in productions of Les Misérables (1995–1996), Ragtime (1997–1999), Fiddler on the Roof (2004–2005), and Spring Awakening (2006–2008).
James Norman Mattis (born September 8, 1950) is a retired United States Marine Corps general and former government official who served as the 26th United States Secretary of Defense from January 2017 through January 2019. During his 44 years in the Marine Corps, he commanded forces in the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War.
Martin Luther King Jr. (born Michael King Jr.; January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Christian minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the Civil Rights Movement from 1955 until his assassination in 1968.
Space Force is an American comedy web television series created by Greg Daniels and Steve Carell, starring Carell, John Malkovich, Ben Schwartz, Diana Silvers and Tawny Newsome. The series premiered on Netflix on May 29, 2020.
The Insurrection Act of 1807 is a United States federal law (10 U.S.C. §§ 251–255; prior to 2016, 10 U.S.C. §§ 331–335; amended 2006, 2007) that empowers the president of the United States to deploy U.S. military and federalized National Guard troops within the United States in particular circumstances, such as to suppress civil disorder, insurrection and rebellion.
United States Of America , the relationship between race and crime has been a topic of public controversy and scholarly debate for more than a century. The crime rate varies between racial groups. Most homicides in the United States are intraracial ——— the perpetrator and victim are of the same race.
All Lives Matter (#AllLivesMatter) is a slogan that has come to be associated with criticism of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837. Before being elected to the presidency, Jackson gained fame as a general in the United States Army and served in both houses of the U.S. Congress.
Sega Corporation is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Shinagawa, Tokyo. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega Europe, are respectively headquartered in Irvine, California, and London.
On August 9, 2014, Michael Brown Jr., an 18-year-old black man, was fatally shot by 28-year-old white Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson in the city of Ferguson, Missouri, a suburb of St. Louis. Brown was accompanied by his 22-year-old friend Dorian Johnson.
F5 Networks, Inc. is a transnational company that specializes in application services and application delivery networking (ADN). F5 technologies focus on the delivery, security, performance, and availability of web applications, including the availability of computing, storage, and network resources.
Keith Maurice Ellison (born August 4, 1963) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 30th Attorney General of Minnesota. A member of the Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL), Ellison was the U.S. Representative for Minnesota's 5th congressional district from 2007 to 2019. He also served as the titular Deputy Chair of the Democratic National Committee from 2017 to 2018.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public, as seen in multiple countries listed below.
The Tiananmen Square protests or the Tiananmen Square Incident, commonly known as the June Fourth Incident (Chinese: 六四事件; pinyin: liùsì shìjiàn in mainland China, literally the six-four incident), were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square in Beijing during 1989.
Westley Sissel Unseld (March 14, 1946 – June 2, 2020) was an American professional basketball player, coach and executive. He spent his entire National Basketball Association (NBA) career with the Baltimore/Capital/Washington Bullets. Unseld played college basketball for the Louisville Cardinals and was selected with the second overall pick by the Bullets in the 1968 NBA draft.
The National Security and Homeland Security Presidential Directive (National Security Presidential Directive NSPD 51/Homeland Security Presidential Directive HSPD-20, sometimes called simply "Executive Directive 51" for short), signed by President of the United States George W. Bush on May 4, 2007, is a Presidential Directive establishing a comprehensive policy on the federal government structures and operations in the event of a "catastrophic emergency".
Barack Hussein Obama II ( (listen); born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, Barack Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008 and an Illinois state senator from 1997 to 2004.
Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963), also known by his initials MJ, is an American former professional basketball player and the principal owner of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played 15 seasons in the NBA, winning six championships with the Chicago Bulls.
El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Arabic: ٱلْحَاجّ مَالِك ٱلشَّبَازّ, romanized: al-Ḥājj Mālik ash-Shabāzz; born Malcolm Little; May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965), better known as Malcolm X, was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist who was a popular figure during the civil rights movement.
George Junius Stinney, Jr. (October 21, 1929 – June 16, 1944), was an African American boy who was convicted, in a proceeding later vacated as an unfair trial, of murdering two girls, ages 7 and 11, in his hometown of Alcolu, South Carolina. He was executed by electric chair in June 1944.
Kayleigh McEnany (born April 18, 1988) is an American political commentator and author who is currently serving as the 31st White House press secretary. McEnany began her media career as a producer for Huckabee on Fox News and later worked as a commentator on CNN.
Periscope is an electromechanical shooting gallery arcade game.
On July 6, 2016, Philando Castile, a 32-year-old African American man, was stopped while driving and fatally shot by Jeronimo Yanez, a 29-year-old Hispanic-American police officer from St. Anthony, Minnesota. Castile was driving with his partner Diamond Reynolds and her four-year-old daughter when at 9:00 p. m.
John Adedayo Bamidele Adegboyega (born 17 March 1992), better known as John Boyega, is a British-Nigerian actor and producer. He initially rose to prominence for his role as Moses in the sci-fi comedy film Attack the Block (2011) and later became best known for playing Finn in the Star Wars sequel trilogy films The Force Awakens (2015), The Last Jedi (2017), and The Rise of Skywalker (2019).
The boogaloo movement, members of which are often referred to as boogaloo boys or boogaloo bois, is a loosely organized American far-right extremist movement. Members of the boogaloo movement say they are preparing for a coming second American Civil War, which they call the "boogaloo".
Just Mercy is a 2019 American legal drama film directed by Destin Daniel Cretton, and starring Michael B. Jordan, Jamie Foxx, Rob Morgan, Tim Blake Nelson, Rafe Spall, Karan Kendrick and Brie Larson. It tells the true story of Walter McMillian, who, with the help of young defense attorney Bryan Stevenson, appeals his murder conviction.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017 and represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate from 1973 to 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, Biden is the presumptive Democratic nominee for president in the 2020 election.
The 2020 United States presidential election is scheduled for Tuesday, November 3, 2020. It will be the 59th quadrennial presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will vote on December 14, 2020, to either elect a new president and vice president or reelect the incumbents Donald Trump and Mike Pence respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country mostly located in central North America, between Canada and Mexico. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3. 8 million square miles (9. 8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area.
The Posse Comitatus Act is a United States federal law (18 U.S.C. § 1385, original at 20 Stat. 152) signed on June 18, 1878, by President Rutherford B. Hayes. The purpose of the act – in concert with the Insurrection Act of 1807 – is to limit the powers of the federal government in using federal military personnel to enforce domestic policies within the United States.
The Ku Klux Klan (), commonly called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group, whose primary target is African Americans. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States.
On 22 November 2014 Tamir Rice, a 12-year old boy, was killed in Cleveland, Ohio by Timothy Loehmann, a 26-year-old police officer. Rice was carrying a replica toy Airsoft gun; Loehmann shot him almost immediately after arriving on the scene.
Juneteenth (a portmanteau of "June" and "nineteenth"), also known as Freedom Day, Jubilee Day, and Cel-Liberation Day, is an American holiday celebrated on June 19.
Bill de Blasio (; born Warren Wilhelm Jr.; May 8, 1961) is an American politician who has served as the 109th mayor of New York City since 2014. A member of the Democratic Party, he was New York City's public advocate from 2010 to 2013.
Microsoft Office, or simply Office, is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft. It was first announced by Bill Gates on August 1, 1988, at COMDEX in Las Vegas. Initially a marketing term for an office suite (bundled set of productivity applications), the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint.
Fascism () is a form of far-right, authoritarian ultranationalism characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition, as well as strong regimentation of society and of the economy which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. The first fascist movements emerged in Italy during World War I, before spreading to other European countries.
On July 15, 2017, Justine Damond, née Ruszczyk, a 40-year-old Australian-American woman, was fatally shot by Mohamed Noor, a Somali-American Minneapolis Police Department officer, after she had called 9-1-1 to report the possible assault of a woman in an alley behind her house.
Murder, as defined in common law countries, is the unlawful killing of another human being with intent (or malice aforethought), and generally this state of mind distinguishes murder from other forms of unlawful homicide (such as manslaughter).
Joseph Allen Maldonado-Passage (né Schreibvogel; born March 5, 1963), better known by his stage name Joe Exotic, is an American former zoo operator and convicted felon. The former owner and operator of the Greater Wynnewood Exotic Animal Park (a. k. a. G. W. Zoo) in Wynnewood, Oklahoma, Maldonado-Passage had claimed to be the most prolific breeder of tigers in the United States.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States. All were enacted in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by white Democratic-dominated state legislatures to disenfranchise and remove political and economic gains made by blacks during the Reconstruction period. The Jim Crow laws were enforced until 1965.
The Tulsa race massacre (also called the Tulsa race riot, the Greenwood Massacre, or the Black Wall Street Massacre) of 1921 took place on May 31 and June 1, 1921, when mobs of white residents attacked black residents and businesses of the Greenwood District in Tulsa, Oklahoma. It has been called "the single worst incident of racial violence in American history".
Ashley Nicolette Frangipane ( FRAN-jih-PAH-nee; born September 29, 1994), known professionally as Halsey ( HAWL-zee), is an American singer, songwriter and activist. Gaining attention from self-released music on social media platforms, she was signed by Astralwerks in 2014 and released her debut EP, Room 93, later that year.
The COVID-19 pandemic in India is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first case of COVID-19 in India, which originated from China, was reported on 30 January 2020.
Lauren Keyana "Keke" Palmer (born August 26, 1993) is an American actress, singer, songwriter, and television personality. Palmer was born in Harvey, Illinois, and raised in Robbins, Illinois. She released her debut album, So Uncool, on September 18, 2007, through Atlantic Records.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Born into the Bush family, his father, George H. W. Bush, served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
A boule is a single crystal ingot produced by synthetic means. A boule of silicon is the starting material for most of the integrated circuits used today. In the semiconductor industry synthetic boules can be made by a number of methods, such as the Bridgman technique and the Czochralski process, which result in a cylindrical rod of material.
The United States is the third-most populous country in the world, with an estimated population of 329,227,746 as of January 28, 2020. The United States Census Bureau shows a population increase of 0. 75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1. 1%.
Reginald Oliver Denny (born (1956-01-22)22 January 1956) was a white construction truck driver pulled from his truck and severely beaten during the 1992 Los Angeles riots, by a group of black men who came to be known as the "L.A. Four". The attack was captured on video by a news helicopter, and broadcast live on US national television.
Colin Rand Kaepernick ( KAP-ər-nik; born November 3, 1987) is an American civil rights activist and American football quarterback who is a free agent. He played six seasons for the San Francisco 49ers in the National Football League (NFL). He is also a political activist, best known for kneeling during the national anthem in protest of police brutality and racial inequality in the United States.
The Central Park jogger case was a criminal case in the United States based on the assault and rape of Trisha Meili, a 28-year-old white woman who was jogging in the park, and attacks on eight other people, in areas ranging from the North Woods to the Reservoir of Manhattan's Central Park, on the night of April 19, 1989. Three of the victims were black or Latino.
Rubber bullets (also called rubber baton rounds) are rubber or rubber-coated projectiles that can be fired from either standard firearms or dedicated riot guns. They are intended to be a less lethal alternative to metal projectiles.
On January 18, 2016, Daniel Leetin Shaver of Granbury, Texas was shot dead by police officer Philip Brailsford in the hallway of a La Quinta Inn & Suites hotel in Mesa, Arizona. Police were responding to a report that a rifle had been brandished at the window of Shaver's hotel room. After the shooting, the rifle, which remained in the room, was determined to be a pellet gun.
The United States National Guard is part of the reserve components of the United States Army and the United States Air Force. It is a military reserve force composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
Wikipedia has articles on most of the major episodes of civil unrest. This list does not include the numerous incidents of destruction and/or violence associated with various sporting events.
Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8, 1911 – August 16, 1938) was an American blues guitarist, singer, and songwriter. His landmark recordings in 1936 and 1937 display a combination of singing, guitar skills, and songwriting talent that has influenced later generations of musicians. He is now recognized as a master of the blues, particularly the Delta blues style.
Diriliş: Ertuğrul (transl. "Resurrection: Ertuğrul") is a Turkish historical fiction and adventure television series created by Mehmet Bozdağ, starring Engin Altan Düzyatan in the title role. It was filmed in Riva, a village in the Beykoz district of Istanbul, Turkey, and premiered on TRT 1 in Turkey on December 10, 2014.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after being accused of offending a white woman in her family's grocery store. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States.
Fredrick Allen Hampton (August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969) was an American activist and revolutionary socialist. He came to prominence in Chicago as chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and deputy chairman of the national BPP.
The 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses are a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the approximately 3,979 pledged delegates to the 2020 Democratic National Convention. Those delegates will elect the Democratic nominee for president of the United States in the 2020 U.S. presidential election.
Bradley John Walsh (born 4 June 1960) is an English actor, comedian, television presenter, singer, and former professional footballer. He is known for his roles as Danny Baldwin in Coronation Street (2004–2006), as DS Ronnie Brooks in Law & Order: UK (2009–2014), and as Graham O'Brien in Doctor Who (2018–present).
Below are lists of people killed by law enforcement in the United States, both on duty and off duty. Although Congress instructed the Attorney General in 1994 to compile and publish annual statistics on police use of excessive force, this was never carried out, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation does not collect these data either.
Héctor Suárez Hernández (October 21, 1938 – June 2, 2020) was a Mexican actor, comedian, and director. He featured in about a hundred films and television shows in a career that spanned 60 years. He was noted for satirizing those in power and for touching on controversial social issues, at a time when it was still taboo in his country to do so.
Sajid–Wajid was an Indian Bollywood Hindi film music director duo consisting of brothers Sajid Khan and Wajid Khan, the sons of Sharafat Ali Khan, a tabla player. Wajid Khan, the younger of the two brothers, died on May 31, 2020.
James Earl Ray (March 10, 1928 – April 23, 1998) was an American white supremacist, fugitive, and felon convicted of assassinating Martin Luther King Jr. at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee on April 4, 1968. Ray was convicted in 1969 after entering a guilty plea (thus forgoing a jury trial and the chance of a death sentence) and was sentenced to 99 years' imprisonment.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears.
This article provides a general overview and documents the status of locations by continents and conveyance of the world affected by the coronavirus responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the first outbreak of which started in Wuhan, Hubei, China. It may not include all the most up-to-date major responses and measures by individual countries and territories.